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Slip, Trip, and Fall Cases
Slip Resistance Testing
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ACCESSIBLE ROUTE: A continuous unobstructed path connecting all accessible elements and spaces of a building or facility. Interior accessible routes may include corridors, floors, ramps, elevators, lifts, and clear floor space at fixtures. Exterior accessible routes may include parking access aisles, curb ramps, crosswalks at vehicular ways, walks, ramps, and lifts.
ADHESION: The tendency of two surfaces in forceful contact to stick together. The resulting increased resistance to slipping may become greater as residence time increases.
CARPET: Permanently secured fibrous floor covering.
CLEAN: Free from visible or tactile contamination.
COATING: A layer of any substance intentionally applied to a surface to modify its functional or decorative characteristics.
COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION: The ratio of two forces acting at the interface of two contacting solid bodies. The force used in the numerator is parallel to the surfaces and the force used in the denominator is perpendicular (normal) to the surfaces.
CONTAMINANT: Any substance on a surface that affects traction performance.
CROSS SLOPE: The slope of a pedestrian walkway that is perpendicular to the direction of travel.
DAMPER: A device used to vary the volume of air passing through an air outlet, inlet,
or duct. It does not significantly affect the shape of the delivery pattern. A pivoted
DECORATIVE: Components not required for the operation of a home's essential systems and outside the scope of a home inspection.
DIRECTIONAL BIAS: A characteristic of a material whose coefficient of friction measurement may differ depending n the direction in which the material is being tested.
DENTIL: One of a series of small projecting rectangular blocks forming a molding
under an overhang, most common in Colonial-
DESCRIBE: To identify in a commercial building inspection report in writing a system or component by its type or distinguishing characteristics.
DETERIORATED PAINT: Paint that is cracking, flaking, chipping, peeling, or otherwise separating from the substrate of a building component.
DIELECTRIC FITTING: In a home or commercial building's water supply system, a special type of adapter (such as a union) used to connect a pipe containing copper with a pipe containing iron; used between dissimilar metals to prevent galvanic action from causing corrosion failure.
DIFFERENTIAL SETTLEMENT: Relative movement of different parts of a building or home caused by uneven sinking of the structure.
DIMENSIONAL LUMBER: Lumber as it comes from the saws, two inches thick and from four to twelve inches wide; also, lumber cut to standard sizes or to sizes ordered.
DISMANTLE: To take apart or remove any components, device, or piece of equipment that would not be taken apart or removed by a homeowner in the course of normal home maintenance. It is beyond the scope of a home inspector conducting a home inspection.
DORMER: A structure projecting above a sloping roof on a home, usually housing a vertical window. It is not part of the roof structure, but is framed separately, and often provides daylight and ventilation for a room located in a garret or loft space.
DOOR JAMB: The sides of a door opening.
DOUBLE GLAZING: A pane made of two pieces of glass with air space between and sealed to provide insulation.
DOUBLE HEADER: Two or more timbers joined for strength.
DOUBLE HUNG: A window having top and bottom sashes, each capable of movement up and down.
DOWNSPOUT: Pipe for carrying rainwater from the roof to the ground or storm drainage system; also called a leader.
DRAFT HOOD: A device placed in and made part of the vent connector, chimney connector, or smokepipe, from an appliance, or in the appliance itself. It is designed to ensure the ready escape of the products of combustion.
DRAIN: A pipe for carrying waste water out of a building.
DRIP EDGE: A piece of metal placed over the building or home's roof sheathing at the perimeter to deflect water away from the sheathing and fascia board.
DRY ROT: A term applied to many types of decay, especially an advanced stage, when the wood can be easily crushed to a dry powder.
DYNAMIC COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION (DCOF): The ratio of the horizontal component of force applied to a body required to overcome resistance to movement when the body is already in motion divided by the vertical component of the weight of the body or force applied to the surface where movement occurs.
DYNAMIC FRICTION: The resistance opposing the force required to perpetuate the movement of one surface on or over another.
FAIR: A smooth transition between adjacent walking surfaces.
FALL: Undesirable descent due to the force of gravity usually from a standing posture or during ambulation, to a lower level, usually the ground or floor.
FORESEEABLE PEDESTRIAN PATH: Any place where a pedestrian could reasonably be expected to walk.
FRICTION: Resistance to the relative motion of two solid objects in contact. This force is parallel to the plane of contact and is perpendicular to the normal force.
HIGH TRACTION: The physical property of a floor or walkway surface that is designed to mitigate slipping during normal human ambulation by providing a reasonably sufficient level of available contact friction.
JACK RAFTER: Rafter shorter than a common rafter; especially used in hip-
JALOUSIE: A shutter or blind with fixed or adjustable slats which exclude rain and provide ventilation, shade, and visual privacy.
JAMB: Vertical members of a finished door or window opening.
JOIST: A building structural member which directly supports floors or ceilings, and is supported by bearing walls, beams, or girders.
PARAPET: Low wall or railing at the edge of a building or home's roof; it extends above the roof level.
PARGE COAT: Thin coat of cement mortar applied to a masonry wall for refinement or dampproofing.
PARQUET FLOORING: Flooring, usually wood, laid in an alternating or inlaid pattern to form various designs.
PARTICLE BOARD: Sheets made from compressed wood fiber.
PARTING BEAD: A long narrow strip between the upper and lower sashes in a double-
PARTY WALL: Wall common to adjoining buildings in which both home owners share, such as a wall between row houses or condominiums.
PATIO: An open court.
PEDESTRIAN: A person using legs or leg surrogates (for example , prosthetic limbs, crutches, etc.) as the principal mechanism for locomotion.
PEDIMENT: A triangular space formed in the middle of a gable; also used as a decoration above a door.
PERGOLA: A garden structure with an open wooden-
PIER: Support, usually in the crawl space of a home, to support the floor framing.
PIGMENTS: Chemicals that have color, or properties which affect color. Usually, a small amount of these chimicals is mixed with another material to color all of the material. Lead carbonate and lead oxide are chemical forms of lead used as pigments.
PILASTER: Rectangular pier attached to a building wall for the purpose of strengthening the wall; also a decorative column attached to a wall.
PILLAR: A column used for supporting parts of a building or home.
PINNACLE: Projecting or ornamental cap on the high point of a roof.
PITCH: Pitch is the slope of a roof usually expressed as a ratio of vertical rise over horizontal run. For uniformity, the run is always defined as twelve feet. Therefore, a 6 in 12 roof would have a vertical rise of six feet over a horizontal distance of twelve feet. Roofs with a pitch greater than 4 in 12 are considered conventional roof systems. Roofs with a slope between 4 in 12 and 2 in 12 are considered to be low slope roofs, and roofs with a pitch less than 2 in 12 are considered to be flat roofs.
PLASTER: A mortarlike composition used for covering walls and ceilings, usually made of portland cement mixed with sand and water.
PLAT: A map or chart of an area showing boundaries of lots and other parcels of property.
PLATE: Top or bottom horizontal members of a row of studs in a frame wall; also, the sill member over a foundation wall.
PLENUM: The large metal box attached to the furnace from which heating ducts emerge.
PLINTH: A square or rectangular base for columns and pilasters.
PLUMB: Said of a building member when it is in true vertical position as determined by a plumb bob or vertical level.
PLYWOOD: A piece of wood made of three or more layers of veneer joined with glue and usually laid with the grain of adjoining piles at right angles.
POLARITY: The correct flow of electricity, which is achieved when the hot and neutral wires of the power supply circuits are connected to the corresponding hot and neutral wires of an appliance or outlet.
PORCH: A covered area attached to a house at an entrance.
PORTE COCHERE: A covered, drive-
PORTICO: A roof supported by columns; often used at an entry to a building or home.
PORTLAND CEMENT: A hydraulic cement, extremely hard, formed by burning silica, lime, and alumina together and then grinding up the mixture.
POST: A perpendicular building support member.
POST & BEAM CONSTRUCTION: Wall or foundation construction consisting of large, widely spaced posts to support horizontal beams.
PRECAST: Concrete shapes made separately before being used in a building.
PREFABRICATED BUILDINGS: Buildings or homes that are built in sections or component parts in a factory, and then assembled at the site.
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE: Concrete in which internal stresses are introduced of such magnitude and distribution that the tensile stresses resulting from the service loads are counteracted to a desired degree. In reinforced concrete the prestress commonly is introduced by tensioning the tendons. Mostly found in commercial buildings.
PRIME COAT: First coat of paint applied to wood or metal to prime the surface for succeeding coats.
PRINCIPAL PURLIN: a purlin that is heavier than a common purlin; usually runs parallel to the ridge of the roof and the top plate. The only purlin on each side of the roof ridge. It is framed into and joins the principal rafters, thus providing lateral stability for the building's entire roof framing system and support for a number of common rafters.
PURLIN: Horizontal roof members laid over trusses or rafters to support a building's roof decking.
RESIDENCE TIME: The period of time between initial sensor contact with the test surface and the instant that relative motion is initiated.
SIDEWALK: A paved surface, such as concrete or asphalt, usually parallel and adjacent to streets.
SLIP: A sliding motion due to loss of traction on a walkway surface (floor, stair tread, pavement).
SLIP RESISTANCE: The property of a floor or walkway surface that acts in sufficient opposition to those forces and movements exerted by a pedestrian under all normal conditions of human ambulation.
SLIP RESISTANT: The provision of adequate slip resistance to reduce the likelihood of slip for pedestrians using reasonable care on the walking surface under expected use conditions.
STATIC COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION (SCOF): The ratio of the horizontal component of force applied to a body that just overcomes the resistance to slipping to the vertical component of the weight of the object or force applied.
STATIC FRICTION: The resistance opposing the force required to start the movement of one surface on or over another.
STICTION: A phenomenon in which a liquid film is squeezed out of the interface between the shoe bottom and the walkway surface as a result of residence time.
SURFACTANT SOLUTION: A solution employed to reduce the water surface tension when
testing on wet hard-
TRIBOMETER: An instrument or device specifically designed to measure the available level of traction upon a floor or walkway surface.
Approved Tribometer – A tribometer that is in compliance with the following:
TRIBOMETRY: The measurement of floor slip resistance or shore traction properties on a walkway surface.
TRIP: An interruption of one’s gait because of an obstruction or an irregularity in or on a surface.
WALKWAY: Walking surfaces constructed for pedestrian usage including floors, ramps, walks, sidewalks, stair treads, parking lots and similar paved areas which may be reasonably foreseeable as pedestrian paths. Natural surfaces such as fields, playing fields, path, walks, or footpaths, or a combination thereof, are not included.
WALKWAY AUDITOR: A person competent to offer reliable observations and opinions regarding the conformance of an audited walkway to relevant safety guidelines or requirements.
WALKWAY SURFACES: Interior and exterior walking surfaces constructed and intended for pedestrian use, including but not limited to floors, ramps, sidewalks, stair treads and paved areas reasonably foreseeable as pedestrian paths.
WALKWAY SURFACE HARDWARE: Includes manhole covers, cellar doors used as walking surfaces, junction box covers, cleanout covers, hatches, sidewalk elevator covers, sewer grates, utility covers, and similar elements that pedestrians can reasonably be expected to walk on.
WALLBOARD: Wood pulp, gypsum, or similar materials made into large rigid sheets that may be fastened to the frame of a building to provide a surface finish.
WASTE STACK: A vertical pipe in a plumbing system that carries the discharge from any fixture.
WATER HAMMER: In water lines, a loud concussive noise which results from a sudden stoppage of the flow. In steam lines, water of condensation which is picked up and carried through the steam main at high velocity. When direction of the flow changes, the water particles hit the pipe walls, emitting a banging noise.
WEATHER STRIPPING: Strips of fabric or metal fastened around the edges of the windows and doors of a home to prevent air infiltration.
WEEP HOLE: Small holes in masonry cavity walls to release moisture accumulation to the exterior.
WINDOW TROUGH: For a typical double-
WIRE GLASS: A type of window glass in which wire with a coarse mesh is embedded to prevent shattering of glass in case it is broken; also, to protect a building against intruders.
WITHE, WYTHE: Pertaining to a single-
WOOD SHINGLE: A thin roofing unit of wood, usually cut from green wood to stock lengths,
widths, and thicknesses, and then kiln-